How to choose the best golf GPS handheld

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The handheld golf GPS is real among the best opportunities you could make inside your golf game. some golf GPS reviews for best golf GPS such a GPS will be this provides you the length through exactly where you tend to be towards the eco-friendly. A few of the costlier versions additionally provide you a good aerial image from the fairway and also the eco-friendly. Additionally, the majority of products possess some kind of information storage space or even data function, therefore, you may evaluate your present game along with previous video games.

How to choose:

 Most of all, this provides you the length towards the eco-friendly. With this info, you may much more precisely select your own iron. The thing is various irons hit the actual ball various distances. The actual really range for any provided iron is dependent the lot about the player how high she or he is, exactly how powerful she or he is, and so on. However, in the event that you exercise in the generating variety a few, you ought to become familiar with your own typical yardage for every provided iron. The choosing tips are given here:

  • The greater costly versions may also display you the actual program through above-an eagle's attention look at.
  • This can assist your strategy not just the length you are capturing, but additionally the actual path you are going to take.
  • This particular is particularly helpful for fairways which are dog's thighs. Which is a person's which are curved in the center?
  • With this particular info, you may choose precisely what is the very best handheld golf GPS to your requirements as well as spending budget.
  • You will possibly not require an actual image from the program. Therefore, you might very easily escape along with a more economical design that could just inform you distances.
  • In the event that you are planning to become the following large golf participant, think about purchasing a great GPS golf develop that will assist you to hit the perspective just like an actual professional.
  • The actual Bushnell Neo Ghost GPS includes the only purpose of producing the actual game really worth caring.
  • This particular GPS golf gadget offers a lot more than 30, 000 golf programs through numerous areas of the planet as well as just about all you have remaining to complete is perform.
  • You are able to journey using the gadget in order to abroad but still utilize it within the game. Even though hardly ever, you will find a training course lacking particularly if you have been in distant areas.

  • At these times, you don't need to be concerned simply because you could possibly get the actual program on the internet as well as obtain.
  • Nevertheless, this is great to find the actual programs in the region you tend to be very first simply because presently there is the probability this is presently there.
  • The actual Neo Ghost includes a great show which is intended for easy the actual game. The actual distances which issue the majority of seem about the show properly organized with this in order to the middle of the actual eco-friendly becoming over another 2 as well as inside a bigger font.
  • You'll need a powerful electric battery that may consider you via a number of models within the program and also the Neo ghosting offers that.
  • Its electric battery may final a few models as well as at some time, you may question in the event that presently there is power becoming eaten since the portion in some way appears to decrease gradually.

Final thinking:

The actual multifunctional cut accessories allow it to be convenient to carry these devices close to throughout the game. This is lawful with regard to event perform you may have one and also have a benefit within the relaxation. In the event that you are searching for enhanced overall performance about the golf program, you much better search for the actual Bushnell Neo Ghost. This is a tool that may provide you the best golf encounter and it is the cost is aggressive for that marketplace. Read some golf GPS reviews for best golf GPS

Where Will Be the Safest Place When Stuck in a Gunfight

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Where Will Be the Safest Place When Stuck in a Gunfight

Many people think that the following materials will be their survival in the shootings: brick walls, tree trunks, door, etc.? Do you agree with them? If you are the one having a gun, you should properly see the gun safe reviews to choose your most suitable weapon for your own.

Shootings and bombings recently in Indonesia made many people were living in fear. The question is if unfortunately fall into that situation, where you have to hide in the safe?

The Truth About the Possibility of the Bullet-Proof Material

It can be seen in the action film, every gunfight occurred when the main character is usually immediately ... lurking in all its forms: from cars, walls, doors, to the table, even your sofa. It seems that these materials have a high resistance to bullets when the main character unscathed despite discharging bullets rained down. Hiding behind the sofa like this, the main character remains unscathed.

In fact, the hiding in safe wherever it depends on many factors, such as the type of gun used, the size of the bullet, distance shot. If the use of a pistol shot, a big tree trunk or brick can deflect bullets. But the kind of gun using .223 caliber were fired at a distance of 100m is capable of penetrating virtually any type of material, except for the thick steel and cement.

Or in another experiment with bullets of AK - 47 (one of the popular gun in the world): 2cm thick steel plate easily penetrated though shot from a distance of 300m. The level of .223 rifle ammunition out of li. However, whether any ammunition they can confirm one thing that wooden tables, doors or sofa ... no effect bulletproof, because virtually any bullets penetrated them well.

So, Where Is the Safest Place to Hide?

One of the locations selected lurks behind the most car door, or can be in materials in the vehicle. The cause is easy to understand because the car doors are often made of metal, easy feeling more secure. To find out where will flee to the safest when stuck in a gunfight, you have to spend more time of researching.

Frankly the car door is easy to go through with guns fired. But in fact, the most automotive door made of tin only, it is not as safe as you think. Not counting bulletproof vehicles shall follow the trial, a pistol bullet could penetrate car doors when shooting at a distance of less than 13m.

As for the li .223 rifle ammunition as mentioned above, the automobile door can easily be penetrated at a distance of 100m. Thus, where will flee to the safest when stuck in a gunfight?

However, cars still have a very safe place to hide - that is the motor behind. In the actual test, automobile engines could deflect virtually all types of ammunition. So if any barrier between your car and held a gun killer, just sitting on the side of the car that you were relatively safe.

If you do not believe you can look at some real examples in many news and magazines. Additionally, you can also choose thick concrete walls to hide. That's where only the heavy rifle bullet can penetrate, that even if the ability to penetrate the injured also much smaller.

What to Do to Survive if Unfortunately Caught in the Shootings?

Without being a safe place to hide, would you please close to the ground? According to the principle, the gun discharged bullets tend to jerk upwards, so try to keep the body in the position as low as possible. Also, look for ways to protect your heart and your head.

In addition, you should also hide behind anything possible, even if it is ... the sofa. The reason is that though there is no bulletproof effect, we have the ability to obscure the vision of those shootings. This will increase the likelihood of survival many times, instead of seeking to flee the living dead body and then fall into the sights of the gunmen.

Finally, when the shootings ended, do not rush to show his face but his hands to his head. This will help you to avoid being mistaken for accomplices. Then, check yourself for injuries and no recourse to the help of doctors. Do not forget to support the other possible injuries.

BELL SUPER , FOX RACING BRAND – BEST REVIEWS EVER

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It is true to say whenever you take a ride with your motorbike; your helmet will be the best protective companion of you. It is especially the case when it comes to motocross helmets. So in these motocross helmets reviews, we will help you choose the best motocross helmet.

Bell Super 2.0 helmet

This helmet is 1 of the most established designs that have rear coverage that is extended. For 2016, it’s been purchased bang today by adding the compatibility with new Super 2R chin bar, which fast converts the 2.0 to a full-coverage lid for uplifts or racing.

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This product is available in 4 sizes; the fit will be top notch as well as airflow excellent due to 25 events. This ventilation includes 4 inlet ports over the brow that effectively brings the cool air around your head. The thick X-Static comfort pads that resist bacteria that could be perforated in your forehead region and then soak up the moisture and therefore complement the helmet’s front vents.

There is extensive coverage around the users’ occipital lobe and temple. In fact, this helmet is 1 of the firm feeling helmets with high-quality construction and a few solid fasteners which incorporate the use of ease (with 1 hand) tensioning bands.

This helmet is not especially lightweight, though. The exposed EPS that located at the helmet’s rear is prone to damage, yet the large part of the helmet’s shell will be well-wrapped. Also, we have found it really super-durable up to date.

Fox Racing V2 Race Helmet

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Fox Racing will be definitely a well-known manufacturer of Off-Track gear Offering and Sportswear providing high-quality tee, t-shirts, tops and tanks for either men or women. While this helmet offers the complete line of motocross pants, gloves, Body Armor, gloves, Apparels and boots through independent motorbike accessory dealers all around the world, this company also provide a complete line of the sportswear, including T-shirts, shorts, fleece, jeans, hats, sweaters, Body Armor and sweatshirts to the community through finer ATV, sportswear and bike retailers around the world.

This product is well-known for its ventilation system. In muggy and hot weather, this helmet’s system ventilation is exceptionally essential. The helmets feature intake vents on the top because this will be the place in which the force of the wind will contact with the helmet. This helmet also has intake vents on both of its sides. Apart from that, this high-quality helmet offers some useful features:

  • Fiberglass shell
  • Dual EPS liner
  • Four EPS sizes and three Shell sizes for certain fit
  • Ten intakes and four exhaust vents used for enhanced airflow
  • 2014 Model
  • Satisfy either Snell 2010 or DOT certifications

Bell MX-9 Pro Circuit

This helmet offers lightweight injected composite shell, EPS sizes and three shell for a precise fit, the velocity flow vent system for comfort and cooling, Moisture Wicking, washable and removable air channeled liner, the chin bar that is EPS-lined, roost guard that is integrated vented, chin strap with the strap keeper and ring closure as well as 5-year warranty

The reduction of noise is the well-known feature of this helmet. Accepted noise is a really essential factor for riders to consider. The 2 exact helmets may have different levels of noise depending on riders’ motorcycle, the type of windscreen used the height of riders, and if air ventilation is either open or closed. Because of this, the noise levels for some given helmets would be rarely offered and, when they are, might be ignored, instead of the customer reviewing noting rattling. This motorcycle helmet is designed to help lessen the wind noise. This high-quality motorcycle helmet is made to not reduce the traffic sounds much, though they lessen the noise of wind very much. Apart from this feature, you will find this product useful with the following useful features:

  • Three shell and some EPS sizes for a certain fit, and adjustable mouth vents
  • Antimicrobial or Antibacterial interior liner, and EPS-lined chin bar
  • 5-year warranty
  • Chin-strap that is padded with ring closure, Velocity Flow Vents, and Polycarbonate Shell.
  • Face Shield and Moisture wicking, washable and removable air channeled comfort lining

Conclusion

Now we get you through 3 reviews of top helmets on the market up-to-now. These kinds of helmets will be indispensable when you take a ride on the road. And in order to keep your safety and comfort the priority, these brands of helmets should be your choice

Green technology: UV puts a new spin on golf balls

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Despite the dominance of such big names as Titleist and Spalding, a tiny manufacturer in Ohio has designed a new golf ball with a variety of innovative features, including an environmentally friendly ultraviolet-cure finish.

Sutherland Golf Inc. is a small, family-run business with just six employees. It is housed in a renovated 16,000-square-foot machine shop in Barberton, OH, about 45 minutes south of Cleveland.

President Rich Sutherland says he founded the company because, like many golfers, he was frustrated by the dizzying array of product claims made by ball manufacturers. "According to the conventional wisdom, if you wanted certain performance attributes, you had to sacrifice others. You either had to buy a ball designed for distance or another designed for control, for example," he says. "I just had a hard time reconciling myself to the fact that it was impossible to make a golf ball that did everything well with no tradeoffs."

Walking away from a career as a manufacturer's sales rep in an unrelated industry, Sutherland rounded up some capital and founded his own company. Consulting with technical experts in such design and manufacturing disciplines as polymer science and ballistics, Sutherland began experimenting with various materials and dimple designs. Three years of research and development yielded the SS402, a ball with a core, cover and finish that are unlike any other, he says.

The SS402 derives its name from the dimple pattern. Each ball has 402 dimples of two different diameters and depths. The SS stands for "star swirl," which describes the pattern formed by the different sized dimples on the ball's surface. Sutherland claims this computer-engineered dimple distribution provides the optimum trajectory, lift, in-flight stability and spin for both distance and control.

Sutherland Golf uses materials made of a proprietary formulation for both its core and cover. The core is conventional rubber with some special additives that improve its "coefficient of restitution" or springiness. The cover is a polyolefin ionomer, called "Trilion," which is soft yet durable. "We've been able to produce a two-piece golf ball that behaves better than a three-piece ball. It flies longer and straighter, spins more and stays round," he says.

Facts about the finish

Last, but no less unusual, is the hall's finish, an ultraviolet-cure clearcoat that is also a proprietary formulation. "A golf ball receives tremendous punishment. Developing a coating that wouldn't lose adhesion was a huge challenge," Sutherland says.

Most conventional golf balls are coated with a waterborne primer and a urethane clearcoat, Sutherland says. He chose a UV clearcoat instead because it is glossy and tough, yet remains more elastomeric or rubbery. This allows the grooves in the club face to bite into the coating, imparting greater spin to the ball and giving better control to the golfer.

UV-coatings have suffered from three basic drawbacks for use in outdoor applications: yellowing, post-cure cross-linking and loss of adhesion. Exposed to the sun's ultraviolet rays, UV coatings can yellow and continue to cure. Eventually this post-curing causes the coating to become hard and brittle. A golf club striking a brittle ball can actually shatter the finish, Sutherland says.

With the assistance of a coatings supplier, Sutherland says, a formula was developed for a UV coating that is stable in sunlight. The coating is 90% solids, so it emits little VOCs or other hazardous air pollutants. Largely because of its environmental finishing process, Sutherland Golf needs no EPA permits for operation.

The UV coating is significantly more expensive than conventional golf ball coatings on a cost-per-gallon basis, Sutherland admits, but that premium is offset by various economies the technology brings to production.

Sutherland Golf's UV clearcoat costs about $125 per gallon, compared to around $35 per gallon for a conventional urethane. Standard golf ball coating operations also apply a primer under the clearcoat, which adds another $30 or so to the per-gallon cost of the coating. UV-coated balls need no primer, and nearly all of the overspray can be reused, offering a much higher transfer efficiency than conventional ball finishing, Sutherland says.

"In terms of the total number of balls coated per gallon, we come out very cost competitive," he adds.

In addition, Sutherland's UV-cure system occupies less manufacturing space because no large convection ovens are required. The UV ovens are cheaper to operate than natural-gas fired ovens. And compared to manufacturing operations where balls must be removed from the conveyor and placed into drying ovens, the UV system offers savings in labor and handling as well, Sutherland says.

Currently, Sutherland Golf has the capacity to produce less than 100,000 dozen balls per year. The company plans to expand to 300,000 dozen by the year 2000. Sutherland may also license the rights to his finishing system to other companies.

How golf balls are made

From the chemistry of the materials, to the ballistics of the dimples, to the physics of flight, an astounding amount of science goes into making a good golf ball. Sutherland offers a basic primer on how golf balls are manufactured at Sutherland Golf.

Traditionally, golf balls have been made of three-piece construction: a rubber inner core, elastic wrappings and a balata or Surlyn cover. (Balata is a rubber derived from tropical trees; Surlyn is a synthetic polymer trademarked by DuPont.) First the cover is formed into two halves of a sphere. The elastic-wrapped core is placed in the bottom half of the cover, and the top half is placed over the top. The entire ball is then squeezed in a heated press to seal the two hemispheres together and produce the dimples.

More recently ball manufacturers, including Sutherland, have begun producing two-piece balls. A solid rubber core is placed in the center of a mold, and a liquid plastic cover material is injection-molded around it.

In the past, balata-covered three-piece balls were favored by good golfers because they are softer and easier to control around the greens. They tend to cut and get out of round more quickly than plastic-covered two-piece balls, however, Sutherland says.

"Three-piece golf balls are rapidly becoming the dinosaurs of the industry," he adds. "Lots of pros are going to two-piece balls because advances in polymer science have imparted more distance and workability to them."

At the heart of Sutherland's ball manufacturing process is the company's specially designed mold. The mold is used to make four balls at a time. A technician places a rubber core in each cavity in the bottom half of the mold, where it rests on pins that ensure it is precisely centered. The top half of the mold is lowered in place, and the plastic cover material, heated to 450 [degrees] F, is injected at an initial boost pressure of 1,500 psi.

The cover material enters the mold through openings equidistant around the equator line of each ball. The flow fronts migrate up and down, evenly surrounding the core until the cavity is fully packed. At that point the machine changes to a secondary packing pressure of 700 psi. The mold is water-cooled to 28 [degrees] F to solidify the plastic. After 30 seconds the pressure is released but the ball remains in the mold for another 25 seconds.

Because the plastic shrinks as it cures, the cover material tightly adheres to the core. "The core-to-cover adhesion is phenomenal, and that's critical to performance. The fact that our core and cover compress and rebound as a single unit greatly enhances the initial velocity," Sutherland says.

Next the balls are placed in a machine that trims and sands the tabs left by the mold openings. Then they go into a vibratory mill filled with a pyramid-shaped plastic media, which buffs the surface all the way to the bottom of each dimple. This buffing smoothes the surface and also promotes adhesion of imprint inks and the finished clearcoat. After imprinting each ball with the Sutherland trademark and any special-ordered custom logos, the balls are rolled on carts to the finishing unit.

The company's single, custom-made finishing unit measures just 5-by-7 feet. It contains a small chain-on-edge conveyer from Binks Manufacturing Co. (Franklin Park, IL) that carries the balls through the spray zone and curing chamber at a speed of 8 1/2 feet per minute. A technician places each ball on a spindle where it rests on three sharp pins. Before entering the spray zone, the balls pass through a device that blows positively charged air on them to dissipate any static charge that might attract airborne contaminants.

The filtered spray zone is equipped with two high-volume low-pressure spray guns, supplied by AccuSpray Inc. (Cleveland). The guns are positioned at a 45-degree angle above and below the balls, which rotate as they pass by. The output of the guns and the rotation of the spindles are precisely matched to make sure each ball is evenly coated with just 1 mil of UV-cure clearcoat. "Any more than 1 mil and you start to get flooded dimples," Sutherland says. "If the coating starts to fill up the dimples, you've killed the bali's ballistics."

Overspray strikes a baffle and runs down into a collection reservoir. More than 90% is recovered. UV coatings are ideal for recycling because they don't dry like conventional paint, Sutherland says. As long as the coating is shielded from UV light, it remains uncured and can be reused.

Finally, the balls pass through the 20-inch curing chamber where they are completely cured in just 3 1/2 seconds. Sutherland says the three-dimensional curing system is proprietary, so he can't discuss the specific configuration of UV lamps and reflectors in the curing chamber. "Curing all the way to the bottom of the dimples is crucial," he notes.

Finished balls can be taken right off the conveyer and placed directly into packaging for shipment to customers.

Though his company is only using the technology on a small scale, Sutherland says the efficiencies of UV-cure technology hold the potential to boost high-volume ball production to unprecedented levels. In the future, Sutherland Golf may license its system to other ball manufacturers, he adds.

As is so often the case with startup businesses, the R&D to develop the SS402 took more time and cash than expected. Without marketing capital, Sutherland's distribution is currently confined almost entirely to northeastern Ohio. Balls are now sold through a handful of regional sporting goods chains and by mail order. A large part of the company's current business is the custom imprinting of balls with corporate logos for special events and promotions.

Sutherland is hopeful that word-of-mouth advertising will generate a following for his product. He's confident that once they try it, golfers will be willing to pay a premium price ($32 a dozen suggested retail) for the improved performance the ball will bring them. "This ball will allow the average guy to actually get some spin on the ball for the first time in his life," he says.

With even a threefold expansion, Sutherland Golf will still be dwarfed by all the other competitors making golf balls. But America has an estimated 25 million golfers who consume nearly 70 million dozen (that's 840 million balls) each year. Sutherland says he'll be satisfied if he can capture even a tiny fraction of that massive market. "I'm not in the high-volume, low-margin business. I never intended to go head to head with the big guys."

How to choose the handmade bushcraft knife

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What are bushcraft and bushcraft knife?

  • Bushcraft is known as skills to prevail in the wild. It has its root in the Southern Hemisphere, and then it achieved popularity in the UK. It is closely linked to the ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions for better attainment of sustenance. As a matter of fact, bushcraft involves a wide range of skills such as fishing, hunting, using tools and so on.
  • As the name implies, bushcraft knife is a tool used to survive in It proves to come in handy in a significant number of situations. In some cases, the availability of a bushcraft knife might even be a matter of life or death.

If you are tied up to a busy schedule and have little time to research information about bushcraft knife, check out for more information in these following websites. Without a doubt, you will benefit a great deal from them:

A bushcraft knife consists of:

-Blade: Customers can choose between fixed blade and folding blade.

  • Fixed blade is often favored for its hardiness. Therefore, for hunters who usually embark on dangerous ventures in the wilderness, it is particularly ideal. Another notable utility of fixed blade is that it reduces the prospect of opening the knife unintentionally.
  • Folding blade also has certain advantages. It is portable and easy to bring along. When the hunt demands long hours of walking, a folding blade does not present itself as a menace to the carrier.

-Sheath: It holds the knife tightly and protects it from external factors

-Tang: It connects the blade to the handle. It is the part that could determine the knife’s ability to withstand and durableness.

-Handle: It fits the knife

However, if possible, you should opt for buying both types of knives. They do not take much place in your luggage. Plus, they will enable you to multitask and dabble at a wide array of works rather than be confined to certain uses only.

Comparison between a bushcraft knife and a survival knife:

Most people think that a best bushcraft knife is no different from a best survival knife. In fact, basically, they are alike. They both help people to overcome any possible danger that might appear, to embrace nature and more importantly, to survive. Nonetheless, there is still one major discrepancy that distinguishes them from each other, which is related to batoning:

  • With a survival knife, batoning is not a challenging task. It can take down large branches without a hitch.
  • A bushcraft knife cannot baton effectively.

Handmade Bushcraft Knives

There are handmade Bushcraft Knives, they are made from 01 carbon tool steel, I then drill, grind and prepare the blade for heat treating.

These knives are high quality products on all and have a high standard of workmanship. These knives will always come to you guaranteed against faulty materials and faulty workmanship. Take a look around my review and grab yourself a Quality Bushcraft companion.

Normal Bushcraft Knife

These are handmade Bushcraft Knives, they are made from 01 carbon tool steel, I then drill, grind and prepare the blade for heat treating.

This is done in my gas forge with two thermometers to keep a check on the temperature, when at the critical temperature they are oil quenched, then tempered to give a hardness between RC 58/59.
The liners, scales and brass bolts are then added after the blade has been cleaned and finished to 400 grit.Traditional English oils finish the knife off to give a lasting finish, pleasing to the eye.

This knife was Designed in conjunction with Dale Collet at Learn Bushcraft and the British Bushcraft School.

Dale designed this knife and I make it to my usual high standard.

It is made from a choice of 2 or 3 carbon steel. It has an English Walnut  handle, brass Corby bolts, fibre liner and a choice of a brass brass lanyard tube with 2mm leather strip.

(please state in an e-mail when ordering if you would like this option)

Dimensions

Overall length: 210mm

Handle length: 110 mm

Blade length: 100mm

Grind: 20 deg. scandi Grind.

Dale Bushcraft Knife

This knife was Designed in conjunction with Dale Collet at Learn Bushcraft and the British Bushcraft School.

Dale designed this knife and I make it to my usual high standard.

It is made from a choice of 2 or 3 carbon steel. It has an English Walnut  handle, brass Corby bolts, fibre liner and a choice of a brass brass lanyard tube with 2mm leather strip.

(please state in an e-mail when ordering if you would like this option)

Dimensions

Overall length: 210mm

Handle length: 110 mm

Blade length: 100mm

Grind: 20 deg. scandi Grind.

Skinnin knife

This knife was Designed in conjunction with Dale Collet at Learn Bushcraft and the British Bushcraft School.

Dale designed this knife and I make it to my usual high standard.

It is made from a choice of 2 or 3 carbon steel. It has an English Walnut  handle, brass Corby bolts, fibre liner and a choice of a brass brass lanyard tube with 2mm leather strip.

(please state in an e-mail when ordering if you would like this option)

Dimensions

Overall length: 210mm

Handle length: 110 mm

Blade length: 100mm

Grind: 20 deg. scandi Grind.

The Neck Knife

A beautiful rosewood handled small knife with its leather neck sheath.

Ideal for carrying as a backup or travelling light.

Many people from the armed forces have bought these knives to take with them on tour.

Again can be personalised with up to 3 initials stamped on the sheath.

 

Blade length: 70 mm

Overall length: 150mm

 

Made From 01 carbon tool steel, it has a 22 degree scandi grind for ease of sharpening.

 

The handle is made form a Stunning grained Rosewood.

 

The bolts are solid brass Corby bolts.

 

This is all backed up with epoxy glue and black liners.

Conclusion

Surviving out in the wild is definitely something that needs to be considered very carefully, especially when you plan on tying your life to a knife. Well, we’re talking about a survival knife of course and the thing is that there are a lot of them out there you can choose from. But if this is your first journey in the world of survival knives, how can you choose the right one for your needs?

It goes without saying that in order to buy the Best Handmade Bushcraft Knife for your needs, you need to check the knife’s function first. So how about you start your selection process by deciding on what you’re going to use the knife for. For example, some people want to use it to cut apples, but if you want to use yours to cut branches, then you need one that has a good grip, enough weight to warrant an easy use and a high quality blade.

Best of our tests : The science of the game

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Springing eternal

Trampoline effect (heretofore known as spring-like effect) entered golf's lexicon in 1998, creating an enduring controversy. In 1999, Golf Digest developed its own titanium driver that failed the USGA's conformance test. The nonconforming driver generated on average 2 percent more ball speed than the conforming club, translating to one or two yards on 220-yard shots but escalating to four to six yards on 270-yard shots. The greater the swing speed, the greater the increase in ball speed and carry distance.

A caveat: The advantage occurred only when the ball was struck on an exact impact location.

These balls are hot

You see them advertised, "hot balls" that do not conform to USGA regulations (and aren't allowed in tournament play governed by USGA rules). Is it hype or is it real? Our robotic testing earlier this year showed these so-called hot balls average five to 15 yards longer off the driver than a conforming distance-type ball. Most of the difference was generated in carry. The balls, incidentally, are smaller and heavier than conforming balls.

Does size matter?

In 1991, oversize drivers--Callaway Golf's Big Bertha and Yonex' A.D.X. among them--transformed the equipment industry. Is bigger really better, we asked? To find out, we tested the Big Bertha against a previous Callaway entry, the S2H2. Note the lower center of gravity (red dot) on the Big Bertha.

The Big Bertha produced a greater average carry, whether the clubhead speed was 85, 95 or 108 miles per hour, on center hits, high toe hits or low heel hits, with a two-piece ball or a three-piece wound balata. In each case, the difference in average carry was greater on off-center hits than center hits, proving, at least, that oversize drivers are more forgiving.

Tests of time

How do today's balls and clubs compare with those of yesteryear? We asked the question in 1994 and pitted a Wilson Staff Dynapower 5-iron from 1973 against a Wilson Staff Ultra 45 5-iron from 1993, a '73 model Wilson Staff 11 driver versus a Wilson Killer Whale, and a 1970-model Titleist K-2 Acushnet ball against a '93 Titleist Tour Balata. The overall conclusions: The new equipment outperformed the old equipment, but to a lesser degree than some claimed. Also, the old ball hit with the old clubs went as far as the new balls hit with the new clubs.

What flex?

It was a given that big hitters required stiffer shafts than short hitters, a notion we set out to prove--or disprove in 1994. For our test, we employed 19 golfers--men and women, high handicappers and low handicappers, hard swingers and easy swingers--and had them swing four drivers, each with a different flex: L (weakest flex), R (medium), S (stiff), and X (extra stiff). The results were not what you might have expected. For instance, a longer hitter does not necessarily bend the shaft more during the swing than a short hitter. Acceleration, not final clubhead speed, may be the key to choosing your shaft flex.

Steel or graphite?

We tested identical 5-irons, one equipped with a steel shaft, one with a graphite shaft, in 1998. The graphite-shafted 5-iron hit the ball farther by about five yards, probably due to its lighter weight, resulting in greater swing speed. The steel-shafted 5-iron, meanwhile, maintained more consistent distance control. The steel-shafted iron averaged 50 percent less variation in distance and dispersion.

The right driver for your game

We deployed robotic and real golfers for the third time in 1999 to analyze the industry's best-selling drivers for shot shape and trajectory tendencies. The purpose of the test was to cut through the marketplace clutter and help steer you toward a driver more suitable to your game.

Of our test group, some drivers performed differently when swung by the robot than when swung by players. One driver, for instance, produced a slight draw when hit by a robot, but delivered a fade when hit by a golfer. We also found that drivers might look similar and cost virtually the same, but the differences can be both subtle and immense. The test confirmed the old adage: Try before you buy.

The out fitter: African countries propose hunting ban

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If one Zimbabwean anti-hunter gets his way, the popular big-game destination could be the next African country to ban sport hunting. Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force Chairman Johnny Rodrigues said in an interview with SW Radio Africa a ban on commercial hunting will help fight poaching. Tt was the same argument Botswana President Ian Khama used when that country passed a ban on commercial hunting that will begin in 2014.

Khama said the ban "was taken to protect Botswana's fauna, because hunting licenses encourage poaching. Left unchecked, rampant hunting would be a genuine threat to the country's wildlife."

Right now, Botswana's ban does not extend to highfence private ranches, but the issue is still unsettled, and Khania, a long-time and outspoken critic of sport hunting, could eliminate all commercial operations.

The future of hunting in Zambia is in limbo as well. Tourism Minister Sylvia Masebo banned lion and leopard hunting in February, citing a decline in big cat populations. However, no one seems to know exactly how many lions and leopards live in Zambia, and numerous professional hunters had to make last-minute cancellations for hunts already booked for the upcoming season. Masebo also revoked public-land hunting concessions for all species. Hunting on private ranches is also prohibited with the exception of lands within a high fence.

"Technically, it's not even legal for the tourism minister to ban hunting; said Conservation Force President John Jackson III. "She basically went beyond her established authority to do this."

Botswana officials cited declining numbers of game animals as one reason for the closure, which includes elephants, but the country has the largest population of elephants in Africa. One estimate puts the number at 200,000 animals. Jackson says the number of elephants is the main reason some game species are declining.

"Some places in Botswana have no suitable habitat for a variety of game animals because the elephants have destroyed it," he said. "Closing the country to hunting will just result in further declines in wildlife."

Jackson adds nearly ten times as many big cats are killed in the name of livestock protection as are killed by sport hunting in Botswana, and poaching is the primary reason big cats are in peril in both countries.

"The hunting quota for lions in all of Botswana is 30, but they kill 200 to 300 per year to protect their cattle. There's no telling how many more are killed illegally," he noted.

As many as 60 professional hunters will be affected in Botswana, and an additional 30 to 40 will go out of business in Zambia as a result of the closures. Up to 4,800 jobs will be lost in Botswana as well, according to the Botswana Wildlife Management Association. The hunting bans will also affect American taxidermists and booking agents like Aaron Neilson, who specializes in big cats. It's not the potential lost income that worries him. Instead, he's much more concerned about the wildlife.

"Poachers will annihilate the game. Its by far the most tragic thing that will happen as a result of these hunting bans," said Neilson, a Colorado resident "The professional hunters, the booking agents, well all figure it out but the wildlife? There won't be any in a few years."

Neilson has hunted in eight different African countries and has seen firsthand how effective poachers can be even when legal hunters are present. Once they leave, however, the country will undoubtedly fall into total chaos as poachers swarm across the landscape. Some poach to feed families and villages, but most sell meat in larger cities, killing as many animals as they can. A few sell trophy parts like elephant tusks on the black market

"They typically use snares and put out hundreds or even thousands at a time," he said. "Snares are indiscriminate. They catch anything that steps in or walks through them, even elephants. This is a travesty."

Kenya banned commercial hunting in 1977. Since then, wildlife populations have declined by 70 percent, according to a report by University of Pretoria (South Africa) Senior Research Fellow Peter Lindsey, largely a result of widespread poaching. The country has also lost an, estimated $20 to $40 million in revenue from sport hunting each year. Botswana stands to lose $20 million in revenue annually, according to a report by the Safari Club International. About 75 percent of the money generated by sport hunting remains in Botswana, compared to just 27 percent of all other tourism revenue. Much of that money is funneled back into local economies and is the primary source of funding for the country's wildlife conservation efforts.

Despite the financial benefits of hunting, Zimbabwe's Johnny Rodrigues wants leaders of his country to end hunting and put more emphasis on photo tourism. Leaders in Zambia and Botswana fully expect an increase in photographic safaris with the hunting closures, as well. However, Neilson, who has extensive experience hunting in Africa, says it's unlikely ecotourism will make up the difference.

"There's no reason they can't have hunting and photo safaris. Much of Zambia isn't conducive to photo safaris, so I'm very skeptical it will see an increase in tourism," he said.

There is hope that hunting may come back to both countries in the future. Liberia and Uganda recently reopened hunting after both countries were closed to commercial hunting for several years. It's a typical pattern throughout much of the continent. Seasons open and close with unpredictable regularity, thanks largely to corruption, war, and political unrest. That's why Jackson and Neilson don't think Zambia or Botswana will reopen hunting anytime soon. Botswana's president has been trying to shut down sport hunting for years and Zambia's tourism minister is simply ignorant, said Neilson.

"She said sport hunters brought about the end of tigers in Zambia. There have never been tigers in Africa. This is the kind of person we are dealing with," he said. "These people are easily influenced by outsiders and are highly corrupt. Corruption is rampant."

Training for hunting: like any sport, hunting requires some preparation

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There's a saying in the military, "Three minutes of combat teaches more than three years of training." True or not, it makes a valid point. There is no substitute for the real thing.

Shooting at a range, valuable and necessary training though it is, can't teach all the skills necessary for shooting well in the field. Generally targets are at known ranges, the shooter is calm and unwinded, and there's no time pressure.

With enough time and effort you can duplicate some of the hunting experience. You could, for example, jog a mile carrying your daypack and rifle, then try to hit a partially obscured target at an unknown range in a brief time period.

But you cannot duplicate the mental and emotional state of the actual hunt--the excitement, the anticipation, the pressure. Often there is fear, or at least apprehension including fear of failure, fear of embarrassment in front of fellow hunters or guides and oddly enough, sometimes fear of success. Above all there is the knowledge this is the real thing, the knowledge there may be only one chance, the mental state training can never recreate.

Experience is the best teacher. The way to learn field shooting is by shooting in the field. We can't hunt elk or bear or deer every week, it may be only once or twice a year. But we can hunt something.

Hunt gophers or prairie dogs. Try leaving the long-range rifles in their cases sometime, grab a rimfire rifle and start walking. Learn to spot the little critters and get close. Learn to quickly acquire a stable shooting position, to improve your offhand shooting skills and fire an accurate shot fast.

In an earlier column, I talked about learning to get an accurate shot off quickly using a shot timer to measure progress. In the field you learn to get off an accurate shot quickly under the pressure of not knowing when the target might disappear.

Growing up on a farm, it seemed I was always hunting something. There were gophers digging burrows in the horse pasture, crows and magpies after the baby chicks, sometimes a fox or weasel. Winter nights, I'd take my air rifle, call the cats, and hunt sparrows in the barn. And if there was nothing else to hunt on hot August afternoons I'd shoot grasshoppers with the air rifle.

Some of those 'hoppers were trophy size. If nothing else they taught me to shoot fast, because they didn't sit around long. Actually I haven't changed much. I'd rather hunt kudu or caribou, but if grasshoppers are all that's available, I'll hunt grasshoppers. Still beats watching TV.

That's the best advice I can give to becoming a good field shot. Hunt something. If you don't live in prairie dog country, hunt groundhogs, small game or field mice. Of course, this assumes the shooter loves to hunt. I sometimes get the impression many people like to boast of a 400-yard shot, or a 150-class whitetail, but find the actual hunting a bore. They like to have hunted, but don't like to hunt.

Equipment Checks

Confidence in the equipment is important. I've written before about testing and preparing your rifle, scope and ammunition. Knowing I'm sighted in helps provide confidence. I've never cared for the idea of sighting in X-inches high at 100 yards and trusting a ballistic table to say the rifle is now sighted at 250 yards.

If I want to sight for 250 yards I set up a target at 250 yards and adjust the scope until the bullets hit center. Then I'll fire a few groups at 100 yards and check point of impact. After traveling, if the rifle or scope gets dinged or if I just need reassurance, I can pace off a 100 yards and do a quick check.

Learn the anatomy of the game you are hunting. I won't debate here the merits of lung shot, heart shot, shoulder shot. The point is you should know which shot you intend to take, and where to place the shot. Not just on the textbook broadside shot, which never happens in the field anyway, but at various angles. Always aim at a specific spot.

No Magic

Cartridge and bullet selection are book-length topics. This is heresy for a rifle enthusiast, but within broad limits I don't think cartridge selection matters much. Like every rifle shooter, I have my favorites, but I don't kid myself there aren't others just as good. There was a time when I found .270 vs. .280 debates stimulating. Not any more. Shot placement and bullet selection are so much more critical I just can't get excited about cartridge debates.

Bullet selection is important, but don't fall into the trap of thinking a magic bullet will drop them every time. Game animals don't come off assembly lines. Some species are tougher than others. Some animals are tougher than others of the same species. Hunters want a cartridge, bullet and a shot placement combination proven to drop the game in its tracks every time. No such combination exists.

Proof

Some years ago 1 had several extra doe tags for whitetail deer, mule deer, and pronghorns in addition to regular either-sex tags. I used a couple of .284 Win rifles, a Winchester 88 and a Browning A-Bolt, with 140-grain Nosler Ballistic Tips at around 3,000 fps. The first 12 animals I shot dropped so fast they hit the ground while the rifle was still in recoil.

The 13th, a nice pronghorn buck, stayed up and ran a couple of hundred yards before falling dead. Why? I don't know. He wasn't alarmed before the shot, in fact he was grazing when I fired. Impact was just where I aimed for--a lung shot. Bullet action was perfect, with rapid expansion, a big exit hole, with both lungs just destroyed. Yet there was enough oxygen in the blood to cover 200 yards, which admittedly doesn't take long for a pronghorn.

Use a cartridge and bullet you trust, place the shot carefully, plan for a clean one-shot kill, but be ready for the exceptions. Reload as soon as the shot breaks and be ready to shoot again. I like one-shot kills as much as anyone and generally get them, but I don't count on it. Depending on the action type I can usually reload in a couple of seconds. If the game is still up and offers a shot I'll take it every time. Better to burn a couple of extra rounds and wreck some meat than to lose the animal.